Preparing referees for a World Cup final

Preparing referees for a World Cup is a big task. And Nestor Pitana has the honour of refereeing the final between France and Croatia. How does he make sure to be ready? I got the chance to speak with Esfandiar Baharmast, present in Russia as a FIFA referee instructor. “I work with all the referees in their technical preparation as well as mentoring and debriefings”, he says. “Our job is to prepare the referees to the highest standards and make sure that they arrive in top physical and mental conditions.”

In this interview you’ll get to know Esfandiar Baharmast, but will also get an insight in World Cup refereeing.



Highlights of his career

What is the biggest highlight of your refereeing career and why?

Esfandiar Baharmast: There are so many highlights that I am not sure which one to mention and keep it brief. From a refereeing point, semi-final of 1996 Olympics in Atlanta between Argentina and Portugal and of course my 1998 World Cup match between Brazil and Norway that to this day is talked about everywhere I go and is an incredible story that does not fade from memories. My assignments to do the opening game of Major League Soccer as well as its 1st Championship match, a game that became an instant classic between DC United and LA Galaxy, both in 1996.

Roles in 7 World Cups

This beautiful career has taken me to 5 Men World Cups, 2 Women World Cups, 4 Olympic games, and every FIFA and Confederation tournaments imaginable. I was the assessor of Rio Olympics final game ( Brazil-Germany) as well as Copa America Centennario championship match (Argentina-Chile).

The awards and accolades that have come are beyond belief, from being the only soccer referee to be the recipient of the NASO ( National Association of Sports Officials) Gold Whistle Award, to receiving the Inaugural MLS Referee of the year award in 1997 and induction to Colorado Soccer Hall of Fame in 1998.

Friendships all over the world

The list goes on and on, but for me the most wonderful highlights are the beautiful friendships that I have with so many quality people in every corner of the globe. They are my true gems and are priceless. I want to highlight each and every one of them, from the mentors who taught me everything I know and my fellow referees, the players and coaches that we still maintain respect and friendship every time we see each other. I also love to celebrate my younger referee friends who through their success and reaching their full potential, bring a smile to my face each and every day.

Watching the new generation achieve their dreams

You’ve had several jobs in refereeing after you quit as active match official. What does it make so beautiful for you to remain involved in refereeing and do you miss it to officiate games yourself?

Esfandiar Baharmast: This game has given me so much and by staying involved and passing on what I have learned is my way of thanking those who came before me as we build on those collective experinces. My best reward is watching the new generation of refeees achieve their dreams and If I can make their journey a little easier and more pleasant, then it is all worthwhile. I owe a huge debt of gratitude to my family and specially my wife Afshan and my daughter Arianna, who know the importance of this and allow me to spend the time away, even though it involves a lot of sacrifice on their part to make it happen.

16 cameras did not see the foul

Let’s go back in time a little bit. You were the center of attention after awarding Norway a penalty kick. Footage afterwards proves that you made a great call, which nobody could see at the moment of the game. I did write a blog post on this topic, but can you briefly explain how you experienced this media storm during such a big tournament?

Esfandiar Baharmast: The media can be brutal and when the tsunami of criticism starts, it takes a great deal of self-confidence and a lot of support from those who are dear and near to your heart to make you stay balanced and in control of your emotions. It is amazing that in the eyes of the media in a span of 36 hours I went from the most incompetent and useless referee (those are some of the mildest words, I give you, as the rest can not be published for people with good manners) to one the best referees who saw something that 16 cameras failed to see. How I was the best and deserved the highest games and all of a sudden had X-ray vision and was super human!

Esfandiar Baharmast

Being comfortable with who I am

The fact of the matter is that nothing had changed, I was the same person with the same judgement and the same decision. Thank God for the Swedish cameraman Mr. Stig Carlsson who had captured the penalty from his location, behind the goal to show the World, what were the simple facts. That Junior Baiano, had CLEARLY pulled the Jersey of Tore Andre Flo and the penalty was 100% the correct decision and I just refereed the game to the best of my ability with honesty and integrity.

Those are the simple facts and allow me to have the most clear conscience and be at peace and very comfortable with who I am and what my values are. For that, I don’t need to read any media or listen to people who have never met me, don’t know my background and have their opinions based on limited information.

Media attention in the current World Cup

How has this changed in recent years now the World Cup is getting even more attention and more people are sharing their opinions on online and social channels? 

Esfandiar Baharmast: I think the level of scrutiny and pressure has become so much more, that is almost like trying to drink from a FIRE HOSE. It can be very difficult with all the social media and everything showing up in matter of seconds and shared all over the world, and many times with brutality and lack of civility. This is a shame and It can be seen in every part of our lives, from the kids in school who experience bullying and humiliation through social media, to what happens after a game to referees, and sometimes players and coaches.

Positive thinking as referee

People forget that these are real people, humans with feelings and families to care for. It is not correct to spread so much harsh and negative feelings into this world, as what we spread, is exactly what comes back to us in return. My Motto has always been to “think positive, talk positive and act positive“, very simple words to say, but putting it into action is the real art of living and good humanity.

So my advice to all referees, is that in your life, stay balanced , be humble and always keep your feet to the ground and your eyes to the stars. When you know how to handle success and setbacks and have humility in victory and defeat, then you are at peace with who you are. Do your best, give it all and have faith that good things will come to good people.

First ever MLS match referee

You were the referee of the first ever MLS match. The game was played on April 6, 1996 between San Jose Clash & D.C. United. How has football changed and professionalized since then? And what does that mean for the role of the referee?

Esfandiar Baharmast: The Speed of the game is simply mind boggling now in comparison to 22 years ago. The pace of games and how you can have 3 counter attacks from one goal to another in less than 30 seconds are simply amazing. The game is played at incredible pace and referees need to be top athletes and be able to maintain fitness and concentration for over 120 minutes and more, as you can not lose your sharpness and focus in the most important moments of the match, namely when the players are tired and mistakes can occur. The increased number of cameras, more coverage of games in print, TV and social media adds to the amount of scrutiny to everything that we do on and off the field of play.

Esfandiar Baharmast in stadium World Cup

The role of FIFA instructor in Russia

What is your current role for the match officials that will go to the World Cup in Russia?

Esfandiar Baharmast: I am a FIFA instructor and work with all the referees in their technical preparation as well as mentoring and debriefings. Our role is the same as the coaching staff of any team that prepares the players for their games. We conduct practical training on the field of play, as well as preparing video clips from matches to debrief after games and prepare for next matches. In addition I have participated in meeting with teams in the Team Arrival Meetings to make sure players and coaches are informed about the general guidelines given and that we are all on the same page.

The highest standards of refereeing

You’ve been to several events prior to this final tournament with the selected candidates. How do you prepare them for the World Cup?

Esfandiar Baharmast: Our job is to prepare the referees to the highest standards and make sure that they arrive in top physical and mental conditions. Also from a technical standpoint, that they have practiced movement and positioning on the field of play and everything has become natural to them. During the games, they must anticipate and read the game, to move quickly to next phase of play, so that they are always in optimal position and have a great angle of view to see the incidents clearly and judge it according to the consistent interpretations of the laws, which again has been practiced by having gone through countless number of video tests and video discussions in the classroom.

Preparation and selection process

How does FIFA provide the referees with the best preparation possible?

Esfandiar Baharmast: The World Cup referees have gone through a 4 year preparation process. Immediately following the the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, we identified the next group of candidates and they have participated in numerous FIFA tournaments from the Olympic games, to FIFA Youth World Cups (U-20 and U-17) in addition to the FIFA Club World Cups , Confederation tournaments,and countless seminars at every opportunity. Same as players who go through a qualifying process and the best are chosen to play for their National teams, we follow in the same way to select the best possible candidates to arrive at the World Cup. It is a long and very intense selection process to ensure that we get the best referees.

Exciting World Cup

What do you expect from the tournament?

Esfandiar Baharmast: I expect that our referees will be in best fitness form and compete as top athletes, with mental toughness and total technical preparation. They will have be the best prepared referees and we have invested lots of time and resources to make sure that they are successful. They will work to the best of their abilities and as a result we should have a wonderful tournament, where players can showcase their talent and provide an exciting World Cup.

Top 3 tips for (young) referees

Most of my readers are not yet at their personal top. What tips (top 3) would you give them to manage their (amateur) games well?

Esfandiar Baharmast: My advice woule be:

  1. “Love the game, not the fame!!!” Remember that the game is all about the players and we are there to provide a service to the game, protect the players, the image of the game and ensure saftey and fair paly, so that the beautiful game can be enjoyed.  Keep your egos checked and be humble and fair, yet firm when necessary in dealing with players and coaches. Your attitude will speak volume about who you are as a person and a referee
  2. Be student of the game: play the game, take a coaching course, watch games and discuss with fellow referees, players and coaches and always keep an open perspective. You don’t have to agree, but if you hear the same input regarding your behavior from different sources, then may be there is something for you to re-evaluate and do adjustments.
  3. “Never settle for ordinary, the difference between ordinary and extraordinary is that extra that you give”. If this is your passion and you love what you do, then giving that extra comes naturally and you can not get enough, but also remember to stay balanced. Do not sacrifice your family and your loved ones, or your work. Keep the balance in your life and treat all 3 with same focus and attention, It will strengthen your charcater to alwys do the right thing , no matter who is watching or not watching. Treat people with respect and kindness”.

The importance of physical training for referees

Bjorn Kuipers and his assistants worked very hard on their training session closely watched by the Dutch press. And by Hilco de Boer. In an interview with Dutch Referee Blog Hilco de Boer tells about the importance of physical training for referees. Hilco de Boer is the physical trainer of referees in the Dutch professional leagues. He guides and monitors their training sessions – whether they are at the KNVB or at home. Based on upcoming games he makes the training schedules for most of the referees.

Dutch top referee Bjorn Kuipers will also receive schemes from Uefa. “All those training schedules are made based on the games that are scheduled”, says De Boer.

Hilco de Boer gives training session to Euro 2016 referees.

Challenge yourself physically twice per week

Hilco de Boer meets most referees once per month face-to-face. “I don’t see Kuipers every week either”, he says. All tests and data from the physical training sessions will be send to him. “But I can’t feel from a distance how he’s doing. Luckily Kuipers is experienced enough to feel that correctly himself.” The training schedules are a good guidance for referees, but a referee is not obliged to follow them to the letter. “If a referee experienced lack of sleep, then he should be able to adjust his schedule a bit.”

What does a training schedule look like? “That really depends on the number of games a referee officiates per week”, stresses De Boer. “If someone has no midweek game, then I’ll advise him to do two intensive running sessions per week.” This advice is also very important for amateur referees according to him. “For amateur referees the intensity of the training session might be different compared to the pro’s. And you need to take into account you can’t do the same if you have a physically hard job. But it’s also good for amateur referees to challenge your physical condition twice a week.”

Train your muscle strength and stability

Besides the running practice, De Boer also recommends every referee to train the strength of the weaker muscles in your body. “Referees get a lot of the same injures and to prevent this, it is very important to do exercises that focus specifically on strength and stability. It prevents referees from getting injuries, but it also helps them perform better, because they’ll be able to move more efficiently.”

De Boer also advices referees to do a light training session on the day before the game. He calls this the ‘matchday -1 training’. “Such a training sessions are an activating trigger for referees”, he says. “It stimulates the circulation of the blood and creates a healthy tension on the muscles. That’s a better preparation than doing nothing.”

Basics of a good training session

The physical trainer joined the KNVB in the summer of 2015 as head of physical training for referees in Dutch professional football. Before that he helped writing the training schedules. “It’s a wonderful job. Sports players in football, so also the referees, are very very motivated most of the time.” In his experience the training sessions at local referee associationsare good. He wants to collaborate a bit more. “It is very important for referees to lay a good foundation for your training sessions and many refs start at local RA’s with their training sessions in The Netherlands.”

Hilco de Boer

Get help from a running coach

There’s one thing that many referees can improve: the running technique. “On tip for everyone: get help from a good running coach.” Good running education is important to improve the way someone runs. With the right running technique you will be able to develop more speed and you’ll be running more efficiently, which makes you less likely tired after a few runs. “That’s why we always record the training sessions of young referees in the talent program on video tape. We monitor how they run. I also collaborate with a former Olympic triathlete to improve the running technique of the talents.” De Boer gives assistant referees the advice to run along with someone who’s an expert with running with a flag in their hand. “That’s something really different”.

To stimulate young referees to do proper physical training, De Boer once send an e-mail with a quote from Collina, someone they look up to. “Collina adviced them to start at a young age with good training sessions. If you’re young you’ll learn easily. When you get older, it’s difficult to adapt to a different training pattern.”

Big Brother is watching

Referees themselves are responsible for following the training schedules made by De Boer. He get the training logs from every referee in professional football in The Netherlands. Those contain the type of training a referee did, what his heartrate was and how tough he found the training session. He prefers to hear from referees if they go to a sports massage therapist and if they recover well from a training or game. “It feels like Big Brother is watching them for some referees, but that’s the only way aI can see how someone trains and if he for example needs to do more sprints. Based on the data I adapt the personal training schedules and in the end it helps the referees.”

Bad weather, busy at the office, meetings with friends or you just don’t want to. You might recognize those ‘reasons’ for not training. Relaxing on the couch sounds good and is so easy. But to stay fit you need to get up your feet and train. “In the end every referee is responsible for their own physical fitness.” De Boer has no doubt about Kuipers’ fitness level before big tournaments. “He takes his responsibility. That will be allright.”

De Boer will follow Kuipers’s performances the first weeks from his holiday destination. “I can’t mean anything form hem, because Uefa is organizing all training sessions in France. For me it is important to be back early July. That’s when all friendlies begin for the other referees.”

5 tips physical training tips by Hilco de Boer

  • Train twice a week intensively to stimulate your physical fitness
  • Do strength and stability exercises 2 to 3 times a week for legs and torso
  • Do a light training session one day before the game to stimulate the blood circulation
  • Do some running with a good running coach and focus on your technique (and not just speed)
  • Start at young age with good training. If you get older it is difficult to adapt your training pattern.

Please share how you do your training sessions. How often do you train (twice or less) and what exercises do you do?

Esther Staubli: interview with a top class referee

Esther Staubli is one of the best female referees at the moment. I got the chance to ask her a few questions for my blog. She shares here experiences about refereeing at big tournaments, like World Cups, European finals and international games. In 2019 she will be refereing at the Women’s World Cup.

A great insight into professional refereeing. Interesting to see how much dedication and effort she puts into it.

Esther Staubli referees at u19 World Cup in India

The year 2017

First we go back to 2017, a big year for Esther Staubli. How was 2017 for you as a referee?

Esther Staubli: It was an amazing year that I never expected!

On Twitter I mentioned that I could ask you a few questions. I  – of course – want to know more about the u17 World Cup and a few readers ask something about that too. Bruce Bode asks: What was the most surprising/ unexpected thing about participating at U17WC? Arbitro Internacional asks: What are your experiences at the u17 WC?

Esther Staubli: It was already a big surprise for me and the other six women to be selected as fouth officials for the u17 World Cup in India. Nothing was planned and I even had to cancel a trip to Sicilia which I had offered my mother for her 70th birthday.

Unique refereeing moment

You are a fourth official during the tournament in India first. Then you get an appointment for Japan vs New Caledonia. A unique moment in history. How did you hear it and how did you experience the game?

Esther Staubli: My role at the tournament was clear. I was a fourth official and my goal was to support my male referee colleagues as much as possible. In the morning after breakfast FIFA always presented the appointments for the next days and it really was a big surprise to hear my name as a referee in this meeting.

I tried to take the match just as a normal appointment but of course it was a special moment go onto the pitch to referee this match, also because of the special weather conditions in India. But once the game started I was just a referee in the middle of a football game and nobody really cared if it was a man or a woman officiating.

Esther Staubli and team

Esther Staubli and team. Photo: Sportsfile from Uefa press release

Working with Anthony Taylor’s AR’s

In that game you work with Adam Nunn and Gary Beswick, both assisting Anthony Taylor a lot. They officiated plenty of games together. How is the chemistry in a mixed refereeing team?

Esther Staubli: They supported me really great and also Anthony who “lent me” his assistants was very supportive. It was a great chance for me to work with such experienced Assistant Referees who normally do games in premier league. I really liked their positive attitude very much and the spirit in our mixed team was great.

Officials from different countries

The u17 tournament officials are new for you. In the Women’s Euro final you work with Belinda Brem, also from Switzerland, but also with Sanja Rodjak Karšić from Croatia. How is it to work with referees you’ve never worked with before?

Esther Staubli: During the preparation for the Euro I invited Sanja to Switzerland for a friendly game and we spent some days together. Furthermore, UEFA appointed our Euro team also for a women’s champions league semi-final in France. For me it was very important to have the games and these days we spent together as a preparation for the Euro.

Generally, I like to work with different AR’s and in Europe we have quite a large group of assistants on a really good level. Still it is very important to prepare a big tournament like the Euro carefully. There are so many small details to discuss before to be able to work as best as possible together.

Esther Staubli.

Esther Staubli. Photo: Uefa press release

Euro 2017 final in The Netherlands

How did you experience the Euro 2017 final in The Netherlands?

Esther Staubli: It was a fantastic publicity for women’s football as both teams showed a great match in the final. Once the match started it was for me again a game as others and just after the final whistle I really realized it was something very special we just had.

Finally, it was also a great pay back for all the hard work we did in the last years and for all the efforts and sacrifices needed in these years to reach this goal in the end.

I was of course a fan of the Dutch ladies, but as always keep an eye out for the refereeing team. Great non-offside call at the Danish equaliser in the final. How important is it for a refereeing team to make these big calls correctly?

Esther Staubli: There is a lot of training and experience behind such a call. We do our games, we do practical exercises with players, a lot of analyses and discussions to be ready for this important call in a crucial situation. I think that’s what happened here. The correct decision in the final is just the result of the hard work we do before.

Former player becomes ref

Back to the start of your career. How did you become a referee?

Esther Staubli: I played in the women’s top division in Switzerland, but I knew my technical skills will never bring me to the national team. I was more a physical player. Because I love football so much I looked for something else in football and ended up as a referee. With refereeing I found a great new passion.

In a previous interview you say that you are not not proud of the number of yellow and red cards you got during your career. What kind of player were you and how does it help you as a referee?

Esther Staubli: I was a fighter on the pitch and I liked physical play. But for me fair play was also always important. Today it helps a lot that I played football. It helps to read the game. and because I was an emotional player I understand some reactions of players better. It makes it easier to find an appropriate way to communicate with players on the pitch.

Refereeing in Switzerland

In 2014 you made your debut in the Challenge League, the second level. What are your chances of reaching the Super League in Switzerland?

Esther Staubli: I never ask for something and I am happy what I get. I think as referees we should enjoy the games we do instead of thinking about games we don’t get. I still work hard to improve and I love still love refereeing so we will see what future still brings …

How is it for you to combine refereeing at a high level with a job at an agricultural school and a private life? What does a typical week for you look like? (any chances to become a professional referee? How much time do you spent on refereeing/training?)

Esther Staubli: At the moment I work 50% as a teacher. My school is very tolerant and supports me very much. I cannot make a living from refereeing and at the moment there is no possibility to become a professional referee in Switzerland.

Flexible job

Because we have a quite flexible system at my school I don’t have to teach every week the same number of lessons. I always try not to work one month before a big tournament an on the other hand I teach a lot when there are no games. I also reduce before a seminar or international matches. For example, I spent this winter 3 week in the south part of Europe in training camps. In a normal week I train about 2 hours every day. Each week I have twice a strength session with a personal coach and the rest of the time I try to do different trainings like spinning, speed, high intensity, agility or just playing squash. Furthermore, I have each week one hour of massage and often I go to the sauna after the gym.

Also football is not missed during the week. I like to watch Europa League and Champions League games. And to prepare my matches I also watch a lot of women’s games on wyscout. That’s also a great possibility to see national women’s competitions all over the world.

Looking at the future

Ata Dizdar wants to know: How long do you think it will be before we see a woman referee officiating a major derby or a major European match?

Esther Staubli: This is difficult to say. It was great that seven women had already the opportunity to participate in the u17 World Cup in India. But also every year the courses with the male elite referees are great opportunities. We can benefit a lot from these courses. So we will see what the future brings …

What are the challenges for female referees and are they different than the challenges for male referees?

Esther Staubli: In my first match in men’s professional football there were two spectators who started discussing after 60 minutes when they realized the referee was a woman (a friend sitting in the tribune told me after the match). So it doesn’t really seem to matter if you are a woman or a man. For me it’s just about performance and not about gender. Of course men are able to sprint faster but if a woman is able to read the game better she can equalize this fact.

Setting goals as referee

What are your personal goals for the future? How important is it to set goals and what do you do to reach them?

Esther Staubli: It is always important to have goals. Then you know why you are working so hard every day. But we should never lose the passion for refereeing. When the day comes where I don’t feel the passion anymore or when the day comes where I do the perfect match and can’t improve any more, I will immediately stop my career. But at the moment the fire is still burning as much as in the beginning. 2019 there will be the World Cup in France. This is of course my next goal. But you never know. I learned in the past that health is the most important and success always comes from hard work. So I keep working hard and hope to stay healthy.

Want to know more about goal-setting? Some great tips for your refereeing career.

3 tips for (young) referees

If you must give a young referee (a reader of my blog) three tips, what would you advise him/her and why?

  1. Work hard and enjoy refereeing. Then the day will to be rewarded will come.
  2. Try to reach Mount Everest and not just any hill. Of course in refereeing Mount Everest may be different for each person. Just find your personal Mount Everest and the view from there will be great.
  3. Be happy and enjoy every game you get. Don’t think about or ask for other matches.

Full-time job: making video analysis for referees

“When I watched and analysed a game of Bjorn Kuipers, I am exhausted”, says John Balvers, he is making video analysis for referees in The Netherlands. As soon Björn Kuipers got the appointment for the Europa League final he started with the preparation for that game. In the meantime Dennis Higler is officiating at the under 17 Euro’s. Busy days for the video analyst. In this interview, that I did before the Euro 2016 tournament, he tells more about how he works.

Being a video analyst is John Balvers’ full time job, almost 24-7. Competition weekends last from Friday to Monday. And if there’s no international football there are some cup games. “There is always football, so always a referee to analyse.” During the European Championships in France he has a special role: helping Bjorn Kuipers analyse his game and the matches of the teams he’s going to officiate. “My goal is to prepare Team Kuipers to the best of my ability helping him reach the final.”

John Balvers making video analysis for referees

Preparation before the games

Balvers is a full-time video analyst for referees working for the KNVB, the Dutch football association. He helps all referees at the professional levels and this period he’s totally focused on the Euro 2016. He took his holidays right before the tournament started and tries to watch as many games as possible. “What I do is unique and doesn’t happen in many other countries, definitely not with a full-time video analyst specifically for referees.” Check video in Dutch made by KNVB about John Balvers.

Every day during Euro 2016 Balvers waits for the moment new match appointments are published by Uefa. Sunday morning Uefa announced that Kuipers will officiate the clash between Spain and Croatia for next Tuesday. “Bjorn will notify me as soon as possible”, says Balvers. “The sooner I know which game he’ll officiate, the more time I have to make a video analysis for referees. I’ll arrange with Bjorn what he needs for his preparation.” When officiating the Europa League semi-final between Sevilla and Sjachtar Donetsk, Balvers analysed their latest encounters in both European and national competitions.

In the preparation of Kuipers’ games Balvers is collaborating with Jaap Uilenberg, the coach of the Dutch referee and also an Uefa referee observer. “We’ve also selected the video clips for the refereeing training camp before the Euro’s together”, he says.

John Balvers' video lab.

The video analysis for referees

The analysis of Balvers is very comprehensive. He’s in his video lab at home and will watch all games and digitally types almost every detail of the game. If there’s a challenge, which player made a foul, who suffered the foul, where free kicks are, who take them, if corner kicks are swung in our out,  which players get the ball often. “With all those stats you recognize how a team plays tactically and builds-up their attack or defence”, says Balvers. “Players often react the same way. In the game against Sevilla the Shakhtar Donetsk players took their corner kicks with short pass to a team mate. As referee you need to be aware that players that things will happen  around the corner flag.” It gives the referee an idea where his focus (also) should be.

All the data Balvers creates will be added to a video database which can be searched through by the match officials. Because there’s lots of data, Kuipers and other Dutch referees, can check attacks from a specific team, challenges from or on a certain player. All easy accessible for them. “I also have data  about who’s on the receiving end of the fouls, so referees are able to check the reactions of players. It shows who has temper, so refs can anticipate on that by calming him down immediately.”

Live analysis during the game

During games of Dutch referees Balvers will be analysing the performance and decisions in real-time. “It’s easy to do it live with all the video streams I can watch”, says Balvers. “I can even watch all replays immediately. Every situation that is possibly interesting for Team Kuipers will be send to them during the first half. Short clips about ten to twelve seconds or freezing frames for the assistant referees with offside calls. So the refereeing team can see if they made the right decisions.”

Two years ago PSV attacker Luuk de Jong scored against Feyenoord, but replays showed he hold the shirt of defender Kongolo. “Kuipers went to Feyenoord captain Clasie during half-time and admitted his mistake and said sorry to him”, Balvers explains. “I send them all clips that seem interesting to me. Right or wrong decision. Kuipers really wants to know if he made a mistake. I don’t give my interepratation, I only send them the video clips. My opinion is not important.”

In the image below you can see all tags Balvers made during a game of the Spanish team against the Czech Republic. All yellow cards (gele kaarten), challenges (duels), offsides (buitenspel) are tagged and Kuipers can check certain types of situations (only left wing attacks or so).

Coding all match situation for Team Kuipers.

Clips on the iPhone

Sometimes Kuipers will even get more than ten clips. “It’s up to him if he wants to see them. He can easily access them on his iPhone or on an iPad in the dressing room.” See image below for clips on the mobile device.

After the second half the refereeing team get some clips as well. At big tournaments the complete analysis with detailed descriptions will be made. “Most of the time the analysis will be ready by the end of the day”, says Balvers. After Kuipers’ games during the World Cup in Brazil he had to fly over 3 hours to the home base for referees. “Then I tried to get everything ready before they stepped into the plane, so they can check everything in the airplane and are briefed when they land.”

Balvers tries to work as fast as possible. He also helps referees during regular games in the national competitions, sends clips to Dutch referee boss Dick van Egmond or Uefa referee observer Jaap Uilenberg. Or to Danny Makkelie in the middle of the night during the u17 World Cup in Chile. “As soon as I hear their appointments I’ll start collecting data and clips.”

After the game it’s now even possible to add the communication of the referees via their headset to the video analysis. “With the headset info referees can improve the way they communicatie with each other.” That’s something that has improved the most in Team Kuipers during the last years together with Sander van Roekel and Erwin Zeinstra, his assistants.

Read interview with Bjorn Kuipers about progression his team made.

Video analysis on a mobile device.

Big library

All those analysed clips together form an interesting library for referees. “It’s accessible for everybody who’s involved in refereeing of professional football in The Netherlands.”

Via a new system called My Team Performance Exchange (MY TPE) it’s even possible that referees select the clips they want their team to study. “He can send them to his team members as match preparation and ask them for a comment on it.”

Watching games normally

“I can’t watch football normally anymore”, says Balvers. He is analysing everything. It was hard for Balvers watching the game between The Netherlands and Costa Rica during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. In case the Dutch lost, Kuipers might officiate the Costa Ricans in a future round and Balvers was already doing his analysis on the games so it would be ready when the appointments were made. “It felt like the world collapsed”, he admits. “I am a huge fan of the Dutch national team, but I work during a big tournament for Team Kuipers. All I hoped for was them reaching the final. I’ll do everything during the European Championships to help them prepare the best way possible and I hope it helps them reaching the final.”

Read more from Euro 2016 referees

Vitor Manuel Reis has 6 tips for referees – a new book by former Portuges pro referees

Vitor Manuel Reis, a former professional referee in Portugal, has written two new books about referees. In this article he talks about his book, plus has some great tips for you as referee.

Vitor Manuel Reis signing his book

Vitor Manuel Reis signing his book. Photo provided by referee.

Vitor Manuel Reis is 59 years old and he was a football referee from 1982 to 1997. At his retirement, at the age of 37, he was in the first national category for 6 seasons. “After that, I was the President of the Portuguese Association Football Referees during some years. And between 2011 and 2016 I was a delegate of the Portuguese Football Federation (General Assembly), representing the referees of the professional football.”

12 books about the football rules

Vitor works in an insurance company as marine underwriter, but also writes books. “This is the twelfth book I write about the football laws and rules”, he says. “Eight ot them with my friend Adelino Antunes. One of this books is not about the football laws and rules but studying the development of the organization and development refereeing system. This last book with another colleague, José Filipe, who worked with me before. I began writing this type of books in 1989, by invitation of the chairman of Sport Services of my Municipality.”

Role in Portugese football

What is your current role in the Portugese refereeing world?

At this moment, nothing. I’m not colaborating with our Football Federation. Since 2011 to 2014 I was the Coordinator of the National Commission of Analysis. It’s a Commission named by the Refereeing Committee and the main role is to analyse the work of the referees observers. We studied the referees complaints about their performances grades/marks also. It was a fantastic and hard job but I loved it. That Commission was a kind of supervisory technical board consisting of 8 members (total). Furthermore, we were responsible for writing technical advices/opinions about the football laws and rules.

Historical book plus LOTG questions

Vitor Manuel Reis doesn’t publish just one book, but two.  Congratulations with your new books. What can readers find in the book? 

The general title of the books is ‘Amarelo, vermelho e golo – o futebol e as suas regra’. It means: “Yellow, red and goal – the football and your rules”. Part one (650 pages) gives you an understanding about the football and it’s rules. In part two you can finds questions, answers and other references to the Laws of the Game (300 pages).

“In book 1 I explain an historical review about the original football rules, written in the famous Freemason’s Tavern in 26th October 1863, in London. After that, a detailed explanation about the 17 Laws of the Game. In the end, a complete chapter about the VAR (Video-Assistant Referee), which is a very important matter nowadays in Portugal.

Laws of the Game Quiz

In book two you’ll find 350 questions with the correct answers about the football laws and rules. One chapter with our opinions about the system of referee’s evaluation (technical observations on the matches). Another chapter with the story of balls used in the world’s championships since 1930 (Uruguay) until 2014 (Brasil). And more: words and expressions used by the referees in portuguese, French and English and the history and statutes of IFAB.

PS: did you know my blog has LOTG questions too? Do the weekly quizzes every Friday at noon (CET).

Teaching journalists and fans too

What do you want to learn the readers of the book?

“We wanted to explain the 17 Laws in a detailed way. It was our purpose. For us it’s important the readers can find in our books all the answers for their doubts. These books are not only for referees, assistant-referees, observers or refereeing technicians but journalists, students of the sport universities, coaches, team directors and football lovers too. We think there is a great problem for your readers: it’s written in portuguese and we have no translation for English or…Dutch. We wanted to write this book in a simple way, because the football laws and rules are not an hermetic code or difficult to understand.”

All book authors.

All book authors. Photo provided by referee

Advice from top refs

Andelino Antunes and José Filipe are also former referees. How will their experience help the readers of the book?

“It was a fantastic job. Many hours, days and months working hard. Adelino Antunes gives only his name for the books, because he is very sick and has family problems. He is 85 years old and he was an international football referee. José Filipe was a first national referee and, as I told in the first answer, was a colleague of mine in that Technical Commission and is one of the most experienced and respected former referees in Portugal. For the portuguese referees Adelino Antunes was always a superior technician. We learn a lot with him. He was our master, our teacher. This is our homage and tribute to his work.”

Crucial parts of your refereeing career

On the cover you write something about the long journey of a referee. What are the most crucial parts of a refereeing career and what characteristics does a good referee need to have?

“Continued interest in studying the fooball laws and rules, discussing the moves/plays in each game, permanent pleasure in refereeing the matches. For the referees each match must be an amazing and pleasant journey. Referee a match must be an excellent occupation, because is a marvellous and sublime action.”

Characteristics of a good referee

What kind of characteristics a good referee need to have?

“In my opinion, suitability/good repute, independence, competence, ethical principles, inteligence, honesty, dignity, responsability, moral integrity, respect for the game. The referees must have one principle in mind: “take the decisions as you see”, respecting the Laws of the Game. The work of the referees is always based in enormous responsabilities. They must evaluate the real intentions of the players and at the same time apply the laws.”

To improve as referee

You write on the cover that it gives joy if you keep busy with refereeing and trying to improve. How much time does it take to be a good referee and what are the best ways to improve?

In my opinion, it is necessary, at least 10 years until to reach the top level. The regional matches are frenquently the most difficult and some times the most harder too. In those matches the referees get the necessary experience to improve their future performances. But for technical improvement is always necessary the discussion with other referees, the participation in “workshops”, technical courses, the study/knowledge of the “Laws of the Game”.

And one very important aspect: each referee must think in reaching the top of the career. And it shall be attractive. The world and our life are nowadays extremely competitives, so the thought of the referees should be knowing the laws, achieve better performances and develop their careers.

6 tips by Vitor Manuel Reis

If you must give three tips from the book that will help referees, what would you tell them and why?

Sorry, not three, but six, if you don’t mind:

  1. Know effitiently the “Laws of the Game” – A referee is a technician, a teacher;
  2. Permanent interest for football – The referee is a very important member of the game. It would be very important if referees have a coach course to better understand the game;
  3. Physical development – Nowadays football is different. The referee must be prepared for a great physical wear in each match and pay attention to all kind of fouls and misconduct;
  4. Motivation – The referees need a permanent motivation for refereeing. Motivation helps to have a positive thinking on the match;
  5. Self-control – Indispensable, namely in some moments on the match. In all the situations of serious fouls play, conflicts or clashes the referee must have an absolute self-control;
  6. Decision-making capacity, firmness and security in all the decisions – The referee is a judge, so he should have the ability to exercise the authority in order to protect and respect the game.

Jens Maae: 2017 is the best year in my refereeing career

Jens Maae thinks 2017 is the best year in his refereeing career. He officiates the Euro u17 final and the Danish cup final. But that doesn’t mean he will stop working hard in 2018. There are new goals. “The most imortant thing is to enjoy myself and second is getting to category 2 in UEFA”, he says in an interview with Dutch Referee Blog.

Jens G. Maae is 35 years old and a referee since 1998. He is a semi-professional referee that works part-time as a physiotherapist. Check out the interview about his wonderful last year plus his future career. 

Jens Maae entering the field of play during the 2017 Danish cup final

Jens Maae entering the field of play during the 2017 Danish cup final. Screenshot from FC Kobenhavn video on YouTube

The u17 Euro final

You officiated the u17 Euro final this year. How did you experience 2017 and this tournament in particular?

Jens Maae: “2017 will for sure be my best refereeing year in my career – participating in the U17 final tournament in Croatia, and afterwards refereeing the Danish cup final between FC Copenhagen and Brøndby. In particular being to the final tournament  – working with colleagues from different countries, and learning from some of the best observers/coaches in Europe.”

You officiated the final with assistants Mika Lamppu from Finland and Russia’s Alexei Vorontcov. How do you prepare for a final? What does day look like? And how is it to work with AR’s from different countries?

Jens Maae: “When appointed to the final, it was important for me to get together with Mika and Alexei as much as possible – to form a team.

Preparing for the final included specific training exercises on matchday minus 2 and 1″. (MD-2 and MD-1 in training schedules, the days before the game, Jan).

“On MD-1 we got together with a coach with scouting notes of the two teams. And we had a pre-match discussion, because I want to make sure who will do the different things in the match,  how I would like them to react in certain situations and so on. AR’s from different countries are used to work differently, so it is very important, that we are aligned as much as possible before going on the field of play.”

“On the matchday we eat breakfast and lunch together. But otherwise are we alone – to get mentally ready. Different referees think differently about what to do on the matchday, but I prefer a small walk, sleep – just relaxing.

“We arrive at the stadium 1.5  hours before kick-off, we also check the pitch and then go to the dressing room. I hear some music – just to feel relaxed! Warm-up – and then GAME TIME!”

Jens Maae

The team is key for Jens Maae

Mika Lamppu talked about chemistry in a refereeing team on my blog in September. He says: “For example, the final was my first match with mr. Maae, but we managed to build a good cooperation thanks to spending much time together during the weeks.” How important is “the team” for you and how do you build it? 

Jens Maae: “The team is very important – I need to trust them 100% in situations.

That is why I use a lot of time with my collegues – getting to know them (both personally and professionally) – and letting them know about my football philosophy. In Denmark we change AR every week – it has it’s weakneses and it’s strenghts – but when going to an international match, we get together – to get aligned.”

“All people are different, and you can learn something from every human being.”

A family of referees

Back to the start of your career. How did you get involved in refereeing?

Jens Maae: “When I was 15 (1997) – my father and big brother were a referee. I was working as a paper boy, but I thought it was boring. So a group of boys from school went to this course and became referees. So in the beginning it was a job (beginning of 1998), becoming a hobby, becoming a career.”

“A funny story is that one of the boys from school is Jørgen Daugbjerg Burchardt. He is a FIFA referee today as well.”

Refereeing the Copenhagen derby

Which steps on the refereeing ladder did you take so far? And how are refereeing facilities in your country? 

Jens Maae: “In the Danish league there are no more steps, I have reached the top. I have refereed the big Copenhagen derby and the cup final.” I also won “referee of the year” after beeing in the top division for 1 ½ years.

Internationally im in Category 3, which is the lowest category in UEFA. My ambition after doing well in the U17, is to be promoted to the category 2 the coming summer 2018. As mentioned I am part-time employed by the FA. We also have a physical coach and several other coaches to help us develop.”

“But in comparison, UEFA is a top top professional organisation. It has a massive set-up and top professional persons working for them.”

Adrenaline kicks for refs

What do you like about refereeing so much and have you ever thought of quitting this hobby?  

Jens Maae: “I love beeing in the center of the greatest game on earth. In Denmark football is number 1 sport – everyone has an opinion about the matches in the weekend. And I love the attention, or lack of it, when a situation in a match is solved correctly. The adrenaline kick after doing a good match is massive.”

“When I became father seven years ago, everything you are spending time on, comes into a perspective. I did not think about stopping, but when getting insults or critisised by fans or clubs unfairly, gets you to think about your future.”

What’s the hardest challenge/problem during your career? 

Jens Maae: “I had a really bad match – missing a penalty and missing a red card – “punishing’ the same team. It was a game-changer – and that is a referee’s biggest nightmare. Jounalists contacted me  – and I was pretty new in the top division. Luckily I had a lot of help from colleagues, mentors and so on. I was refereeing a couple of weeks after [that incident, Jan] and became stronger because of that.”

Goals for the future

It’s just 2018. What are your refereeing goals for this year? And how are you going to achieve them?

“The most imortant thing is to enjoy myself and second is getting to category 2 in UEFA. Will try to reach that by showing consistancy, being at your best every time you go on the pitch. Knowing mistakes will come, but doing my very best to minimize the odds for them to come.”

Check more about goal-setting for referees.

On the Uefa website you say something about the u17 Euro as well. “This is a very important tournament for all of us because we’re learning from the best observers in the world.” What are the best 3 tips that will make others a better referee too?

  1. Listen to the people that want to help you – even though you sometimes disagree
  2. “Go the extra mile” – there is no easy way to the top
  3. Be yourself and enjoy the level your are refeering at.

Physical training programme to improve refereeing in Madrid

José María García-Aranda EncinarA physical training programme is launched by the Referee Committee of the Madrid Football Association. They want to improve their local referees and prepare them for the increasing standards of refereeing. One of the goals is to “position Madrid’s men and women referees at the forefront of Spanish refereeing.”

I talk on my blog with José María García-Aranda Encinar. He is adviser to the President of the Referees’ Committee and to the President of the Football Federation.

Plan for specific demands of referees

Can tell me a bit more. What are the plans?

“The target is to extend the physical training programmes to all the referees’ categories, increasing the number of professionals in charge and the venues. And also to implement training plans for the referees and their specific demands on the field of play. A specialised plan will be developed for women referees and assistant referees.”

“My role has been to help in developing these general plans. They’re part of my duties as adviser to the President of the Referees’ Committee and the President of the Football Federation.”

Increase the quality of referees

Why is a good physical condition so important for referees?
“Nowadays, football matches in all the categories are played faster. The general level in men’s and women’s matches has increased the  demands for the referees. Accurate physical preparation helps the referees not only from the physical point of view but also with their
psychological performance.

Why do referees need such a programme?
“One of the main targets of the Madrid Referees’ Committee is to increase the quality of the referees and assistant referees (men and women). And to promote them to the top national and international tournaments. This programme will be an important part of the plans in order to reach these goals.”

José María García-Aranda Encinar talking about physical training programme.

José María García-Aranda Encinar training FIFA referees.

Physical training programme to improve performances

How will this help referees?
“Increasing the quality of their training and education will improve their performance and their opportunities to compete with referees from other regions in the “race” to the promotion.”

What do referees have to do now? 
These programmes require a higher compromise from the referees with their general preparation. Because they need to be in closer contact with their instructors. It also shows they need to be an active part of their own control and management.

Forefront of Spanish refereeing

The Referees Committee is seeking excellence in all the areas related to the referees’ performance. What are the other plans to improve the quality of refereeing in Madrid?
The new President of the Madrid Referees’ Committee, José Luis Lesma, with the full support of the new President of the Royal Football Federation of Madrid, Francisco Díez, seeks to position Madrid’s men and women referees at the forefront of Spanish refereeing. To reach this challenging target, new physical, technical and psychological programmes will be implemented with the support of the new technologies (educational platforms, applications, etc.).

3 tips for you

If you have to give three tips to referees about their physical performance. What tips would you give them? 

  1. First of all, your physical preparation will improve your general performance and image.
  2. You need an excellent physical preparation to control the demands of modern football matches.
  3. An accurate physical preparation will allow you to be in the right place at the right time. To show the best of yourself as a referee, you need to use this tool (physical preparation).

Want to read more about referees and fitness? Check out the fitness page on this blog.